(Shtora-1 was recently spotted on a Syrian Arab Army T-90 tank)
The Shtora-1 EOCMDAS (electro-optical counter-measures defensive aids suite) has been developed by Zenit Research and Production Corporation to increase the survivability of tanks and armoured vehicles against Anti Tank Guided Weapons (ATGW) and Semi-Automatic Command to Line Of Sight (SACLOS) guidance system and other projectiles and artillery shells which use laser illumination systems
The Full System has 4 main components , they are –
1)Electro-optical interference station comprising jammer, modulator and control panel with a total weight of 80 kg. Normally an MBT would have two of these systems with one jammer system installed on either sides of the armaments pointing forward
2)Grenade dischargers weighing 115 kg , installed on either sides of the turret which are capable of dispensing an aerosol screen
3)Laser warning system with precision and coarse head weighing 20 kg
4)Control system with a total weight of 15 kg comprising control panel, microprocessor and manual screen laying panel. This processes the information from the sensors and activates the aerosol screen laying system.
(T-90 turret closeup. The main components of Shtora EOCMDAS and frontal Kontakt-5 ERA arrays are very well visible)
WORKING OF SHTORA-1
The laser warning system detects the threat laser system and automatically orientates the turret in the direction of the threat. It then triggers the grenade launchers creating an offboard aerosol screen. The composition of this cloud is claimed to screen the tank against laser range-finders and designators and is also claimed to be sufficiently hot to seduce infra-red homing weapons away from the MBT.
(Coarse wife field laser warning system)
(Fine resolution narrow field laser warning system)
The jammer, which is designated the TShU1-7, introduces a spurious signal into the guidance circuitry of the incoming ATGW through the use of coded pulsed infra-red jamming signals continuously generated. It is claimed to be effective against Western ATGWs such as the TOW, HOT, MILAN and Dragon as well as Eastern ATGWs such as the AT-3 ‘Sagger’.
Wire-guided missiles such as the American TOW are guided to the target by means of a wire and a flare on the back of the missile. The flare is used to keep a ‘reference point’ of the missile in relationship to the target lock held by the operator, and the guidance computer tries to put the flare on the reference point. Shtora emitters create a large hotspot, essentially tricking the missile guidance into following the Shtora hotspot instead of the flare hotspot, resulting in faulty course corrections by the ATGW computer. In fact, the computer shall usually believe that no horisontal course correction is necessary since the false flare comes from the same direction as the targeted tank, while vertical corrections shall cause ATGM to either dive into the ground or climb into the sky, depending on whether the operator holds the lock below or above the emitters.
The second part of the system defeats laser guided weapons. When a laser beam is detected the Shtora informs the crew with light and sound; it then launches laser defeating smoke grenades, which enshroud the tank and break or degrade the lock. The tank commander can also press a button that will turn the turret front to the laser to meet incoming ATGM with the best protected section and to engage the laser beam source with the maingun.
The TShU1-7 has a specified life of 1,000 hours, a Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) of 250 hours and a radiation source life of 50 hours. It operates from a 27 V DC power supply with the infra-red jamming source consuming 1 kW of power.
In addition to being used to jam incoming ATGWs, the manufacturer claims that the TShU1-7 system has a target illuminating capability, including for night vision devices.
1. System weight: 350 kg
Laser illumination sensors
1. Quantity: 2x TShU-1-11 precision
sensors. 2x TShU-1 rough sensors
2. Field of view (each): -5° .. +25° elevation
3. Field of view (total): 360° azimuth
EO interference emitters
1. Quantity: 2, OTShU-1-7
2. Operating band: 0.7 .. 2.7 mkm
3. Protected sector: 4° elevation
4. Energy consumption: 1 kW
5. Light intensity: 20 mcad
Anti-FLIR smoke grenades
1. Quantity: 12, 81mm 3D17
2. Obscured band: 0.4 .. 14 mkm
3. Bloom time: 3 sec
4. Cloud persistence: 20 sec